Q. Define combinational logic.
Ans: When logic gates are connected together to produce a specified output for certain specified combinations of input variables, with no storage involved, the resulting circuit is called combinational logic.

Q. Define Half adder and full adder.
Ans: The logic circuit that performs the addition of two bits is a half adder. The circuit that performs the addition of three bits as a full adder.

Q. Define Decoder
Ans: A decoder is a multiple-input multiple-output logic circuit that converts coded inputs into coded outputs where the input and output codes are different.

Q. What is a binary decoder?
Ans: A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from n input lines to a maximum of 2n output lines.

Q. Define Encoder.
Ans: An encoder has 2n input lines and n output lines. In the encoder, the output lines generate the binary code corresponding to the input value.

Q. What is a priority Encoder?
Ans: A priority encoder is an encoder circuit that includes the priority function. In priority encoder, if 2 or more inputs are equal to 1 at the same time, the input having the highest priority will take precedence.

Q. Define multiplexer
Ans: Multiplexer is a digital switch. If allows digital information from several sources to be routed onto a single output line.

Q. What do you mean by comparator
Ans: A comparator is a special combinational circuit designed primarily to compare the relative magnitude of two binary numbers.

Q. What is the classification of sequential circuits?
Ans: Sequential circuits are classified on the basis of the timing of their signals into two types. They are,
1)Synchronous sequential circuit.
2)Asynchronous sequential circuit.

Q. Define Flip flop.
Ans: The basic unit for storage is a flip-flop. A flip-flop maintains its output state either at 1 or 0 until directed by an input signal to change its state.

Q. What are the different types of flip-flops?
Ans: There are various types of flip-flops. Some of them are mentioned below they are,
RS flip-flop
SR flip-flop
D flip-flop
JK flip-flop
T flip-flop

Q. What is the operation of the D flip-flop?
Ans: In D flip-flop during the occurrence of clock pulse if D=1, the output Q is set, and if D=0, the output is reset.

Q. What is the operation of JK flip-flop?
Ans: • When K input is low and J input is high the Q output of the flip-flop is
• When K input is high and J input is low the Q output of the flip-flop is
• When both the inputs K and J are low the output does not change
• When both the inputs K and J are high it is possible to set or reset the
flip-flop (ie) the output toggle on the next positive clock edge.

Q. What is the operation of the T flip-flop?
Ans: T flip-flop is also known as Toggle flip-flop.
• When T=0 there is no change in the output.
• When T=1 the output switch to the complement state (ie) the output

Q. Define race around the condition.
Ans: In JK flip-flop output is fed back to the input. Therefore change in the output results change in the input. Due to this in the positive half of the clock pulse if both J and K are high then the output toggles continuously. This condition is called a ‘race around condition’.

Q. What is an edge-triggered flip-flop?
Ans: The problem of race-around conditions can be solved by edge-triggering flip-flops. The term edge triggering means that the flip-flop changes state either at the positive edge or negative edge of the clock pulse and it is sensitive to its inputs only at this transition of the clock.

Q. What is a master-slave flip-flop?
Ans: A master-slave flip-flop consists of two flip-flops where one circuit serves as a master and the other as a slave.

Q.Define registers.
Ans: A register is a group of flip-flops flip-flop can store one-bit information. So an n-bit register has a group of n flip-flops and is capable of storing any binary information/number containing n-bits.

Q. Define shift registers.
Ans: The binary information in a register can be moved from stage to stage within the register or into or out of the register upon application of clock pulses. This type of bit movement or shifting is essential for certain arithmetic and logic operations used in microprocessors. This gives rise to a group of registers called shift registers.

Q. What are the different types of shift types?
Ans: There are five types. They are,
Serial In Serial Out Shift Register
Serial In Parallel Out Shift Register
Parallel In Serial Out Shift Register
Parallel In Parallel Out Shift Register
Bidirectional Shift Register

Q.Define synchronous sequential circuit
Ans: In synchronous sequential circuits, signals can affect the memory elements only at the discrete instant of time.

Q. Define Asynchronous sequential circuit.
Ans: In asynchronous sequential circuits changes in input signals can affect memory elements at any instant in time.

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