When heat is supplied into (or remove heat from) a fluid, this heat might be used (in whole or in part) to contribute some work towards surroundings, even change the temperature of the fluid, change the phase of the fluid, or to provide the energy required to carry out a chemical reaction. These concepts are termed sensible heat effects, and latent heat effects caused during the transfer of heat energy into the fluid system.

*Sensible Heat Effect:*

*Sensible Heat Effect:*

Which involves ‘heating’ that changes the temperature of the system. Consider a closed system where there is (1) No chance of changing the state of the material which could be identified as solid is converted into liquid or liquid is changed into vapor or gas form,

(2) No chemical change in chemical structure or chemical identity of which the substance is made, and

(3) No possibility of altering the composition of the substance in the system,

Then adding heat to or removing heat from the system will change its temperature and/or cause it to contribute some work on the surroundings. The aim here is to relate the temperature change and work done by which the amount of heat is added. For a homogeneous substance having a constant composition, Well used phase rule shows us about two intensive properties should be made maintained at constant values to find out the state of the fluid.

Internal energy or Enthalpy is a function of two intensive variables, pressure, and temperature. Thus, using *T *and *V *as the independent variables for *U*, we write *U *= *U *(*T*,* V*)

### Individual Heat Transfer Coefficient and Thermal Diffusivity Calculator

Heat is transferred in three different modes namely conduction, convection, and radiation. Electrical and electronic appliances, process equipment and automobiles all these objects run on different kinds of energy sources. When they operate heat energy is released or observed from one point or location to another. In the case of a mobile phone charging, electricity pass from a power socket to the battery and during this operation some energy escapes in the form of heat. Heat generation happens due to the resistance of the materials. From the inner core of the battery and the circuits of the charger, heat will be transferred by conduction.

Thermal conductivity is a property derived in cases where the conduction mode of heat transfer is studied and conduction of heat occurs through the non-flow motion of molecules example solids where the molecules are not free to move. Unbound electrons play the role of transferring heat in conduction but when in the case of liquids and gases molecules themselves move toward the temperature gradient.

In the case of a solid heat transfer rate in conduction explained by a formula for steady state condition given by **Fourier’s Law**

This says the rate of heat flow per unit area is given by the product of the thermal conductivity of the substance to the temperature gradient of length, n.

The above equation is written for ∆T of temperature difference (T1, T2) and B thickness of a solid where ∆T exist is q/A=k. ∆T/B

The same analogy is considered when heat is transferred to a liquid that is in contact with a solid surface, it is assumed that when a hot solid surface comes in contact with a liquid, a film (a thin sub-layer at the walls of the solid surface) is formed on the liquid side in the region of contact and this film is the only thickness considered as solid thickness and temperature is homogenous outside of this film. The resistance of the heat flow lies in this film only.

A property for liquids has been introduced for the calculation of heat flow from solid to liquid, which is derived from Fourier’s law of conduction where the term B thickness is incorporated into the term k and a term called heat-transfer coefficient is generalized the reason is fluid thickness cannot be measured accurately.

Thermal resistance is the inverse of the heat transfer coefficient. In a heat exchanger heat is transferred from a hot liquid to a solid tube and from tubes to a cooled liquid. Thus this coefficient is specified as the individual heat transfer coefficient with respect to hot and cool liquid streams and referred to the inside heat transfer coefficient and outside heat transfer coefficient.

The rate of heat transfer by convection under steady-state conditions: Q = h A ∆T

‘h’ is the heat transfer coefficient, W/m^{2}K,** h= k/B**

For convective heat transfer both in laminar and turbulent flow **Q = h A (T**_{w}** – T**_{avg}**)**

T_{w} = temperature at the surface of the wall

T_{avg} = Free stream temperature (for external flow)

Bulk temperature (for internal flow)

For fluid flowing inside the pipe, where heat transfer occurs from the heated wall of the pipe to the fluid:

Q = h A (Tw – Ti)

Ti is the average temperature of the fluid

For fluid flowing outside a heated pipe,

Q = h A (Tw – To)

To is the temperature far from the surface.

The overall heat transfer coefficient for hydrocarbons against water coolant varies normally in the range of 50 to 100 Btu/ hr.ft2.^{o}F

Few heat transfer thumb rules:

- The law that governs the conduction mode of heat transfer is Fourier’s law.
- The thermal conductivity of water as the temperature increases goes through a Maximum.
- When different resistances are in series, the quantity that is constant throughout the length of steady-state conduction is heat transfer.
- More slope in the steady state temperature profile denotes more thermal resistance.
- A pool of water is heated by an immersed heated plate. Then the mode of heat transfer at the interface of water and the heated plate is conduction.
- For a particular material, thermal conductivity is the function of Temperature.
- The significant dimensionless number in unsteady state heat transfer is the Fourier number
- The thermal boundary layer is thinner than the hydrodynamic boundary layer when Prandtl number>1
- When the warm end approach of the heat exchanger is approximately equal to the cold end approach the LMTD is equal to the arithmetic mean.