The symptoms of pneumonia can range from mild (cold and flu-like) to severe. It is a contagious infection. The specific bacterium that is causing your pneumonia, your general health, and your age all play a role in how serious your case is. Pneumonia can be brought on by a number of different species, including bacteria, viruses, and fungus. Pneumonia caused by bacteria or viruses can spread to others. This implies that they can transmit from person to person when airborne droplets from a cough or sneeze are inhaled.
These kinds of pneumonia can also spread by contact with surfaces or objects that have been exposed to pathogens that cause the disease.
Pneumonia caused by fungi can spread through the environment. It cannot transfer from one person to another.
In the United States, pneumonia causes 50,000 adult deaths and 100,000 hospital admissions each year. It is the second most typical reason for hospital admission, with childbirth ranking first.
Pneumonia is further divided into groups based on how or where it was acquired:
(HAP). This particular bacterial pneumonia is contracted while being treated in a hospital. Due to the bacteria’s potential increased antibiotic resistance, it may be more dangerous than other forms.
(CAP). Pneumonia acquired outside of a hospital or other institutional setting is referred to here.
(VAP). VAP is the term used to describe pneumonia in ventilator-dependent patients.
pneumonia due to aspiration. Aspiration pneumonia is brought on by inhaling bacteria into your lungs through food, drink, or saliva. If you have trouble swallowing or are very sleepy from using narcotics, alcohol, or other sedatives, it’s more likely to happen.
Pneumonia symptoms and signs might include:
- when you cough or breathe, your chest hurts
- confusion or shifts in consciousness (in adults age 65 and older)
- coughing, which could result in phlegm
- High temperature, perspiration, and chills
- a body temperature that is below average (in adults older than age 65 and people with weak immune systems)
- diarrhea, vomiting, or nauseous
- breathing difficulty
Antibiotics are typically used to treat bacterial pneumonia. Your general health, any underlying medical conditions, the type of medications you are currently taking (if any), whether you have recently used antibiotics (if so), whether there is any evidence of antibiotic resistance in the area, your age, and any recent antibiotic use will all affect which antibiotic is prescribed. The use of painkillers and fever-reducers may be beneficial.
Viral defense does not employ antibiotics. (In some circumstances, antibiotics may be administered to treat an additional bacterial infection.) The majority of viral causes of pneumonia have no known cures. However, antiviral medications may be recommended if the flu virus is suspected to be the culprit to shorten the duration and severity of the sickness.
If a fungus is the root of your pneumonia, an antifungal medicine is recommended.
There are two vaccinations (shots) that have been specially approved to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia. These immunizations, like the flu shot, won’t prevent you from all types of pneumonia, but if you do have pneumonia, it won’t be as bad or possibly fatal, especially if you are at higher risk for pneumonia.
avoiding secondhand smoke and giving up smoking. Your lungs suffer if you smoke.
washing your hands after using the restroom, before handling food, before eating, and after being outside. Use a hand sanitizer with alcohol as a substitute for soap.
avoiding being around sick folks. Invite them to come back once they feel better.
avoiding interacting with or utilising items that are shared by others. If you touch your nose or mouth without first washing or sanitising your hands, germs could be passed from the object to you.
eating a balanced diet, getting adequate sleep, and exercising. Your immune system is strengthened by healthy practises.
getting any further infections or medical issues handled. Your immune system may become compromised as a result of these diseases, increasing your vulnerability to infections.
avoiding excessive alcohol consumption